Hyperglycaemia: “hyper” means high; gly = glucose; aemia = blood: therefore hyperglycaemia means HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE levels. Normally symptoms of hyperglycaemia will only appear if the blood glucose (sugar) level is greater than 11.0mmol/l. 

The causes of hyperglycaemia are:

  • Not using enough insulin or oral diabetes medication
  • Not injecting insulin properly or missing an insulin injection
  • Not following your diabetes eating plan
  • Being inactive
  • Having an illness or infection
  • Using certain medications, such as steroids
  • Being injured or having surgery
  • Experiencing emotional stress, such as family conflict or workplace challenges

The symptoms of hyperglycaemia are:

  • Frequent urination (needing to go to the toilet more often than normal)
  • Increased thirst
  • Blurred vision
  • Fatigue (unusual tiredness)
  • Headache

If hyperglycaemia is left untreated it can be serious and can result in Diabetic Keto-acidosis (DKA) or Hyperosmolar State.  Read on hyperglycaemia.

Hypoglycaemia: “hypo” means low; gly = glucose; aemia = blood: therefore hypoglycaemia means LOW BLOOD GLUCOSE levels.  Symptoms will normally appear when blood glucose (sugar) levels are less than 4.0mmol/l. The brain needs glucose (sugar) to function, so if your blood glucose level drops too much then this will affect your ability to function normally. If left untreated it can lead to a coma. Click here for information on how to treat hypoglycaemia.  [This will be a section in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes]

The causes of hypoglycaemia are:

  • Taking too much medication especially too much insulin
  • Not eating / missing a meal
  • Unplanned exercise
  • Alcohol
  • Vomiting

The early warning signs and symptoms of hypoglycaemia are:

  • Feeling shaky
  • Sweating
  • Trembling
  • Pounding heart; racing pulse
  • Confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Feeling hungry
  • Headaches
  • Irritability
  • Pale skin
  • Anxiety

Hypertension: HIGH blood pressure: i.e. the pressure of the blood flowing through your blood vessels is HIGH. This can lead to heart attacks, strokes and kidney damage. Read more information on hypertension.