Retina: this is the thin light-sensitive lining in the back of the eye which acts like the film in a camera that helps us to see images. 

Retinopathy: this is damage to the retina. The damage is caused by damage to the blood vessels in the retina due to uncontrolled and high blood sugar (Glucose) levels.

Controlling your blood sugar (glucose) levels can prevent damage to the retina.

  • Background / non-proliferative retinopathy: this is the initial stage of retinopathy. High blood sugar levels cause damage to the blood vessels and cause them to leak fluid which causes the retina to swell. This can result in blurred vision.
  • Proliferative retinopathy: this is more serious damage to the retina which results in reduced vision and even blindness.

If you are experiencing blurred vision or have noticed that your vision is getting worse, speak to your doctor to refer you to an ophthalmologist – which is a special eye doctor that can look into your eye and see if there is any damage to the retina.

Rebound hyperglycaemia: (Somogyi phenomena): this is high blood sugar that can occur in response to hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar (glucose) levels). When you have low blood sugar (glucose) levels, your body will respond by getting the liver to make glucose to raise your blood sugar (glucose) levels, but sometimes the liver makes too much glucose and causes your blood sugar (glucose) levels to go too high.